ran ist der Markenname der Sportsendungen auf den deutschen Fernsehsendern Sat.1, kabel eins (seit Herbst ), Sat.1 Gold (April ), SIXX (Juni ). Datenschutz · Über MedienWiki · Impressum · Mobile Ansicht · Powered by MediaWiki Powered by BlueSpice. Sat.1 is a German free-to-air television channel that is considered the first privately owned television network in Germany, having been launched in January.
Sat.1-FrühstücksfernsehenDatenschutz · Über MedienWiki · Impressum · Mobile Ansicht · Powered by MediaWiki Powered by BlueSpice. ran ist der Markenname der Sportsendungen auf den deutschen Fernsehsendern Sat.1, kabel eins (seit Herbst ), Sat.1 Gold (April ), SIXX (Juni ). 1, siehe SatFrühstücksfernsehen. Frühstücksfernsehen ist die Bezeichnung für ein Programmformat von Fernsehsendungen, die je nach Tag und Sender.
Sat1 Wiki Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoOhne Wikipedia: Wissen junge Menschen was eine Enzyklopädie ist? - SAT.1 Frühstücksfernsehen
Welche Vorteile hat PayPal im Sat1 Wiki zu den anderen. - InhaltsverzeichnisFebruar acht Mal im Jahr erscheinen.
Geeignet befunden und kurzerhand aus den Sat1 Wiki der Casinos genommen. - »Erfolgsentscheidend ist vor allem die Persönlichkeit des Influencers.«November gab die ProSiebenSat.
Bereits am Juli liefen die Sendungen Sat. Juli nahm Sat. Diese Übertragungen wurden jedoch zum Quotendesaster, da die Marktanteile an keinem Sendetag über zehn Prozent lagen.
Damit lagen sie sowohl deutlich unter dem Schnitt des Senders als auch deutlich unter den Marktanteilen des regulären Nachmittagsprogramms.
Auch aus wirtschaftlicher Sicht war diese Entscheidung ein Fehlgriff. November gab die ProSiebenSat. Betroffen hiervon waren Redakteure und Verwaltungsmitarbeiter.
Die ProSiebenSat. Zugleich wurde ein Wechsel in der Geschäftsführung bekannt. Der bisherige Sat. Sein Nachfolger bei Sat.
Januar Guido Bolten , der bisherige Geschäftsführer von kabel eins , der den Sender zum 1. Februar wieder verlassen hat.
Januar kam es in Berlin zum ersten Streik der Beschäftigten im deutschen Privatfernsehen. Anlass für die Mitarbeiterversammlung waren die gescheiterten Verhandlungen zwischen Sat.
Seit Januar sendet Sat. Bei der Entwicklung der Zuschaueranteile ist zu berücksichtigen, dass sie nicht nur die Akzeptanz des Programms widerspiegeln, sondern v.
Im Jahr hatte Sat. In der Sender-Rangliste belegt der Sender meist den vierten Platz. Nur in den Jahren und gelang der Aufstieg auf Platz 3. Im Jahr fiel Sat.
Zum 1. Januar hat Sat. Bereits änderte Sat. Anders als bei früheren Kampagnen, bei denen der Ball stets im Vordergrund stand, setzte der Sender erstmals das gesamte Logo in den Vordergrund.
Der bunte Ball wurde durch eine deutlich kleinere, einfache, schwarze Kugel ersetzt. Zusätzlich wurde das Logo nun von einer Ellipse umrahmt.
Obwohl der Schriftzug Sat. Allerdings wurde ihm seine bunte Farbe entzogen und er war ein einfacher dunkelgrauer, leicht transparenter Kreis.
September präsentierte sich Sat. Jetzt zeigte der Sender als Bildschirmlogo nicht nur den Ball, sondern auch die Textmarke.
Damit wurde die eingeschlagene Richtung weitergeführt. Der Ball war nun ähnlich dem ersten Logo wieder bunt. In , both verbal and math sections were reduced from 75 minutes to 60 minutes each, with changes in test composition compensating for the decreased time.
From to , scores on the SAT were scaled to make the mean score on each section. In and , SAT scores were standardized via test equating , and as a consequence, average verbal and math scores could vary from that time forward.
However, starting in the mids and continuing until the early s, SAT scores declined: the average verbal score dropped by about 50 points, and the average math score fell by about 30 points.
By the late s, only the upper third of test takers were doing as well as the upper half of those taking the SAT in From to , the number of SATs taken per year doubled, suggesting that the decline could be explained by demographic changes in the group of students taking the SAT.
In early , substantial changes were made to the SAT. The changes for increased emphasis on analytical reading were made in response to a report issued by a commission established by the College Board.
The commission recommended that the SAT should, among other things, "approximate more closely the skills used in college and high school work".
Major changes were also made to the SAT mathematics section at this time, due in part to the influence of suggestions made by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Test-takers were now permitted to use calculators on the math sections of the SAT. Also, for the first time since , the SAT would now include some math questions that were not multiple choice, and would require students to supply the answers for those questions.
Additionally, some of these "student-produced response" questions could have more than one correct answer.
The tested mathematics content on the SAT was expanded to include concepts of slope of a line , probability , elementary statistics including median and mode , and problems involving counting.
By the early s, average combined SAT scores were around typically, on the verbal and on the math. The average scores on the modification of the SAT I were similar: on the verbal and on the math.
The drop in SAT verbal scores, in particular, meant that the usefulness of the SAT score scale to had become degraded.
At the top end of the verbal scale, significant gaps were occurring between raw scores and uncorrected scaled scores: a perfect raw score no longer corresponded to an , and a single omission out of 85 questions could lead to a drop of 30 or 40 points in the scaled score.
Corrections to scores above had been necessary to reduce the size of the gaps and to make a perfect raw score result in an At the other end of the scale, about 1.
Although the math score averages were closer to the center of the scale than the verbal scores, the distribution of math scores was no longer well approximated by a normal distribution.
These problems, among others, suggested that the original score scale and its reference group of about 10, students taking the SAT in needed to be replaced.
Beginning with the test administered in April , the SAT score scale was recentered to return the average math and verbal scores close to Although only 25 students had received perfect scores of in all of , students taking the April test scored Because the new scale would not be directly comparable to the old scale, scores awarded on April and later were officially reported with an "R" for example, "R" to reflect the change in scale, a practice that was continued until For example, verbal and math scores of received before correspond to scores of and , respectively, on the scale.
Certain educational organizations viewed the SAT re-centering initiative as an attempt to stave off international embarrassment in regards to continuously declining test scores, even among top students.
Since , using a policy referred to as "Score Choice", students taking the SAT-II subject exams were able to choose whether or not to report the resulting scores to a college to which the student was applying.
It was also suggested that the old policy of allowing students the option of which scores to report favored students who could afford to retake the tests.
In , the test was changed again, largely in response to criticism by the University of California system. Other factors included the desire to test the writing ability of each student; hence the essay.
The essay section added an additional maximum points to the score, which increased the new maximum score to The mathematics section was expanded to cover three years of high school mathematics.
To emphasize the importance of reading, the verbal section's name was changed to the Critical Reading section. In March , it was announced that a small percentage of the SATs taken in October had been scored incorrectly due to the test papers' being moist and not scanning properly and that some students had received erroneous scores.
The College Board decided not to change the scores for the students who were given a higher score than they earned.
A lawsuit was filed in on behalf of the 4, students who received an incorrect score on the SAT. At the time, some college admissions officials agreed that the new policy would help to alleviate student test anxiety, while others questioned whether the change was primarily an attempt to make the SAT more competitive with the ACT, which had long had a comparable score choice policy.
Since then, Cornell,  University of Pennsylvania,  and Stanford  have all adopted Score Choice, but Yale  continues to require applicants to submit all scores.
Others, such as MIT and Harvard , allow students to choose which scores they submit, and use only the highest score from each section when making admission decisions.
Still others, such as Oregon State University and University of Iowa , allow students to choose which scores they submit, considering only the test date with the highest combined score when making admission decisions.
Beginning in the fall of , test takers were required to submit a current, recognizable photo during registration. In order to be admitted to their designated test center, students were required to present their photo admission ticket—or another acceptable form of photo ID—for comparison to the one submitted by the student at the time of registration.
The changes were made in response to a series of cheating incidents, primarily at high schools in Long Island, New York, in which high-scoring test takers were using fake photo IDs to take the SAT for other students.
In the event of an investigation involving the validity of a student's test scores, their photo may be made available to institutions to which they have sent scores.
Any college that is granted access to a student's photo is first required to certify that the student has been admitted to the college requesting the photo.
On March 5, , the College Board announced its plan to redesign the SAT in order to link the exam more closely to the work high school students encounter in the classroom.
The SAT has been renamed several times since its introduction in It was originally known as the Scholastic Aptitude Test.
According to the president of the College Board at the time, the name change was meant "to correct the impression among some people that the SAT measures something that is innate and impervious to change regardless of effort or instruction.
Test preparation companies in Asia have been found to provide test questions to students within hours of a new SAT exam's administration. The leaked PDF file was on the internet before the August 25, exam.
This predictive validity was found to hold across demographic groups. For decades many critics have accused designers of the verbal SAT of cultural bias as an explanation for the disparity in scores between poorer and wealthier test-takers.
The correct answer was "oarsman" and "regatta". The choice of the correct answer was thought to have presupposed students' familiarity with rowing , a sport popular with the wealthy.
Analogy questions were removed in The largest association with gender on the SAT is found in the math section, where male students, on average, score higher than female students by approximately 30 points.
Some researchers believe that the difference in scores for both race and gender is closely related to the psychological phenomenon known as stereotype threat.
Stereotype threat is thought to occur when an individual who identifies themselves within a subgroup of people encounters a stereotype regarding their subgroup within the content of a test they are taking.
Some researchers believe that stereotype threat may be responsible for the underperformance of about 20 points on the math portion for women.
Other researchers question these assertions, and point to evidence in support of greater male variability in spatial ability and mathematics.
Greater male variability has been found in body weight, height, and cognitive abilities across cultures, leading to a larger number of males in the lowest and highest distributions of testing   [ circular reference ].
This results in a higher number of males scoring in the upper extremes of mathematics tests such as the SAT, resulting in the gender discrepancy.
Although aspects of testing such as stereotype are a concern, research on the predictive validity of the SAT has demonstrated that it tends to be a more accurate predictor of female GPA in university as compared to male GPA.
African American, Hispanic, and Native American students, on average, perform an order of one standard deviation lower on the SAT than white and Asian students.
Researchers believe that the difference in scores is closely related to the overall achievement gap in American society between students of different racial groups.
This gap may be explainable in part by the fact that students of disadvantaged racial groups tend to go to schools that provide lower educational quality.
This view is supported by evidence that the black-white gap is higher in cities and neighborhoods that are more racially segregated.
For example, African Americans perform worse on a test when they are told that the test measures "verbal reasoning ability", than when no mention of the test subject is made.
John Ogbu , a Nigerian-American professor of anthropology, concluded that instead of looking to their parents as role models, black youth chose other models like rappers and did not make an effort to be good students.
One set of studies has reported differential item functioning, namely, that some test questions function differently based on the racial group of the test taker, reflecting differences in ability to understand certain test questions or to acquire the knowledge required to answer them between groups.
In , Freedle published data showing that Black students have had a slight advantage on the verbal questions that are labeled as difficult on the SAT, whereas white and Asian students tended to have a slight advantage on questions labeled as easy.
Freedle argued that these findings suggest that "easy" test items use vocabulary that is easier to understand for white middle class students than for minorities, who often use a different language in the home environment, whereas the difficult items use complex language learned only through lectures and textbooks, giving both student groups equal opportunities to acquiring it.
There is no evidence that SAT scores systematically underestimate future performance of minority students. However, the predictive validity of the SAT has been shown to depend on the dominant ethnic and racial composition of the college.
Christopher Jencks concludes that as a group, African Americans have been harmed by the introduction of standardized entrance exams such as the SAT.
This, according to him, is not because the tests themselves are flawed, but because of labeling bias and selection bias; the tests measure the skills that African Americans are less likely to develop in their socialization, rather than the skills they are more likely to develop.
Furthermore, standardized entrance exams are often labeled as tests of general ability, rather than of certain aspects of ability. Thus, a situation is produced in which African American ability is consistently underestimated within the education and workplace environments, contributing in turn to selection bias against them which exacerbates underachievement.
In the s and s there was a movement to drop achievement scores. After a period of time, the countries, states and provinces that reintroduced them agreed that academic standards had dropped, students had studied less, and had taken their studying less seriously.
They reintroduced the tests after studies and research concluded that the high-stakes tests produced benefits that outweighed the costs. Atkinson , the president of the University of California , urged dropping the SAT as a college admissions requirement:.
Anyone involved in education should be concerned about how overemphasis on the SAT is distorting educational priorities and practices, how the test is perceived by many as unfair, and how it can have a devastating impact on the self-esteem and aspirations of young students.
There is widespread agreement that overemphasis on the SAT harms American education. Even now, no firm conclusions can be reached regarding the SAT's usefulness in the admissions process.
It may or may not be biased, and it may or may not serve as a check on grade inflation in secondary schools. Frey and Detterman investigated associations of SAT scores with intelligence test scores.
Additionally, they investigated the correlation between SAT results, using the revised and recentered form of the test, and scores on the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices , a test of fluid intelligence reasoning , this time using a non-random sample.
They also noted that there appeared to be a ceiling effect on the Raven's scores which may have suppressed the correlation. SAT preparation is a highly lucrative field.
The College Board maintains that the SAT is essentially uncoachable and research by the College Board and the National Association of College Admission Counseling suggests that tutoring courses result in an average increase of about 20 points on the math section and 10 points on the verbal section.
A meta-analysis estimated the effect size to be 0. Certain high IQ societies , like Mensa , the Prometheus Society and the Triple Nine Society , use scores from certain years as one of their admission tests.
For instance, the Triple Nine Society accepts scores verbal and math combined of or greater on SAT tests taken before April , and scores of at least on tests taken between April and February After studying over 50 graded essays, he found that longer essays consistently produced higher scores.
He also discovered that several of these essays were full of factual errors; the College Board does not claim to grade for factual accuracy.
Perelman, along with the National Council of Teachers of English, also criticized the minute writing section of the test for damaging standards of writing teaching in the classroom.
They say that writing teachers training their students for the SAT will not focus on revision, depth, accuracy, but will instead produce long, formulaic, and wordy pieces.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the college admission test in the United States of America. For other uses, see SAT disambiguation.
Standardized test for college admissions in the United States. Main article: Math—verbal achievement gap.
But Not Your Face Mask". The New York Times. Retrieved College Board. The SAT1 gene plays a vital role in the catabolic pathway of polyamine metabolism.
It acts as a rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway of polyamine metabolism, meaning it is significant in the involvement of cell survival.
Research has shown that the tumor protein known as p53 can specifically target the SAT1 gene that results in ferroptotic cell-death.
Ferroptosis is when a death of a cell is caused by an iron-dependent accumulation of a lipid. SAT1 gene. X chromosome human . National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.
National Library of Medicine. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. American Journal of Physiology.
Endocrinology and Metabolism. Retrieved 19 November Human Genetics. Early programs included old films mainly from the archives of KirchMedia American hit series and game shows the most notable show being the German version of Wheel of Fortune , Glücksrad.
Later, the station acquired a name for its original series and TV films. Pay-TV sister channel Sat.
In Sat. In addition to its free-to-air standard definition feed, Sat. Regional newscasts are broadcast under the title Sat. The average age of the viewers is From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
German TV station. This article needs additional citations for verification.